Respond to each peer initial post and question at the end with a response about 3-4 sentences long. Peer #1 1.Discuss several common ethical issues program evaluators may encounter. There

Respond to each peer initial post and question at the end with a response about 3-4 sentences long. Peer #1 1.Discuss several common ethical issues program evaluators may encounter. There are many ethical issues that program evaluators may or will encounter. One of those ethical issues is obtaining informed consent. informed consent procedures have the potential to change the behaviors of the people in the evaluation, then the validity of the evaluation can be threatened. Another ethical issue is maintaining confidentiality. (Posavac, 2011) Maintaining confidentiality is another huge ethical issue because the privacy of program participants or managers should not be violated, (Posavac, 2011) because there are laws set in place to protect people information (contact information, locations, and anything legal documentation or matter that could bring harm to someone) because individuals will abuse it and other companies and/or organizations will use it to their benefit. Another major ethical issue is the interest of different stakeholders. The needs of one stakeholder group can easily lead to narrow and misleading conclusions if not done correctly. There is going to be grey areas with this ethical issue because there are many stakeholders and being able to effectively evaluate programs without crossing ethical lines are hard. Other ethical issues include validity of information, which evaluation method fits so that different grey areas can be reduced, and potential evaluation problems can be addressed. 2.Discuss professional ethical standards of the nonprofit field related to program evaluation. Professional ethical standards of the nonprofit field and how it relates to program evaluation is as follows to only deliver services that a nonprofit consultant and instructor are qualified to undertake, and which will only be benefit to the nonprofit. (Posavac, 2011) The professional delivery of management support services requires objectivity, independence, and integrity. Ensure that nonprofit understand the objectives and scope of services and the costs before they are delivered. Through formal quality assurance program, evaluating the quality of the work done by the nonprofit personnel. These evaluations continuously improve the quality of service. (Posavac, 2011) 3.Recommend behaviors program evaluators can practice to reduce the likelihood of ethical issues occurring. The recommended behavior program evaluators can practice to reduce the likelihood of ethical issues occurring are as follows, first evaluators conduct data-based inquiries that are thorough, methodical, and contextually relevant. (Posavac, 2011) Second, evaluators provide skilled professional services to stakeholders. (Posavac, 2011) Third, evaluators behave with honesty and transparency to ensure the integrity of the evaluation. (Posavac, 2011) Fourth, evaluators honor the dignity, well-being, and self-worth of individuals and acknowledge the influence of culture within and across groups. (Posavac, 2011) Last but least, evaluators should strive to contribute to the common good and advancement of an equitable and just society. (Posavac, 2011) Peer #2 1.Discuss several common ethical issues program evaluators may encounter. There are several ethical issues that program evaluators might encounter when performing their duties. Treating individuals ethically can be a major issue in organizations. Some companies have failed to evolve with society and outlaw discriminatory practices and procedures. Failure to adapt may create backlash for many organizations. Another issue might be providing the necessary data that the individuals who plan to act based on the survey desire. While one issue might be conveying accurate data and results, falling short of providing stakeholders the necessary information can result in both wasted funds and loss of future funds. This portion is critical in program evaluation. 2.Discuss professional ethical standards of the nonprofit field related to program evaluation. Some professional ethical issues include actually understanding the ethics of each role, an important part of program evaluation. Also insuring you have consent from the individuals you are evaluating, the alternative could place everyone at risk. Evaluators are judged based upon their mood and delivery, they must maintain a stable and unbiased conveyor of results. 3.Recommend behaviors program evaluators can practice to reduce the likelihood of ethical issues occurring. To reduce the likelihood of ethical issues occurring, evaluators must have a full understanding of the subject’s policies and procedures, and the roles of its participants. By having this understanding there is the ability to ensure practices remain ethical. Also by having numerous one to ones with stakeholders and grasping a true understanding of their self-interest in order to understand practices and test for validity. Peer #3 The United States is based off of Federalism which gives states some autonomy on how the powers to be run the state. The states also allow local municipalities to enact ordinances of their own with the federal government being the supreme law. One of the goods and services the federal government provides is Medical Assistance Program better know as Medicaid. ” The financial effectiveness of the United States’ Medical Assistance Program (Medicaid) depends on sound financial management at all political levels. States receive payments from the based on the number, kinds and payment rates of to eligible patients. Because payments can lag by a considerable time and because claims may be denied, adjusted or re-processed, the state cannot easily predict its total payments for recently delivered. As a matter of fact, some claims linger as long as 24 months ” (Barry, G. & Powell, J. IMA Journal of Management Mathematics, 2006 ). The state is in charge of providing a solid education system as well as confining our ‘rehabiliating’ our violent and non violent offenders in the penitentiaries. Most states are broken down by counties and as we all know the richer the county the better the school districts. Some fellows in the academia field have coined the cliche ‘Schools to Prisons Pipeline’ due to the poor school system in many states in poor counties.  How to generate money (property taxes, business taxes) is the crux of the problem. Authors  Stullich, Stephanie; Morgan, Ivy; Schak, Oliver state, ”  Over the past three decades, state and local government expenditures on prisons and jails have increased about three times as fast as spending on elementary and secondary education. At the post secondary level, the contrast is even starker: from 1989–90 to 2012–13, state and local spending on corrections rose by 89 percent while state and local appropriations for higher education remained flat. This increase in corrections spending has been driven by — among other factors — an increase in the number of people incarcerated in prisons and jails. Linkages exist between educational attainment and incarceration. For example, two-thirds of state prison inmates have not completed high school. Young black men between the ages of 20 and 24 who do not have a high school diploma (or an equivalent credential) have a greater chance of being incarcerated than of being employed. At the same time, researchers have estimated that a 10 percent increase in high school graduation rates may result in a 9 percent decline in criminal arrest rates” ( Stullich, S, Morgan, I, Schak, O.  Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development, US Department of Education, 2016). The local municipalities when it come to voting is very important. In your communities voting polls is where you elect your representatives on a federal and state level to speak on your behalf, but I would be remiss to discount the local elections since they deal with things such as school spending (school boards), taxes (county councils),and public transportation (to privatize or have city or county manage). Authors  Oliver, J. Eric, Callen, Zachary, Ha, Shang E. state, ” Outside of Washington, there exists a largely unrecognized political entity that exerts an enormous influence on American society. It accounts for over $1.6 trillion in spending every year, roughly a quarter of the nation’s gross domestic product. It collects more revenue than the federal government does in income taxes. And, arguably, its daily decisions have a more direct impact on Americans than most of the laws and regulations made in Washington, D.C. It tells us where we can live, how we can dress, what we can eat, and how we can act in both public and private places.This political behemoth is local government” ( Oliver, E.J., Callen, Z., Ha, Shang E., 2012). Peer #4 There are various agencies in the United States that are operated by the federal government, intended to provide goods and services to citizens. Each department or agency has their own functions and responsibilities (Departments and Agencies, n.d.). The Department of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Justice, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veteran Affairs are all federal government agencies which provide goods or services to citizens (Departments and Agencies, n.d.). Every department is intended to serve the public by offering products and services that is intended to better the lives of citizens. Federal agencies support state and local governments provide their services. State and local governments “plan and pay for most roads, run public schools, provide water, organize police and fire services, establish zoning regulations, license professionals, and arrange elections for their citizens” (State and Local Government, n.d., para. 4). State governments make final decisions over local functions; however, local governments provide separate services for their citizens. Laws vary among states depending on local circumstance, such as speed limits in certain areas (State and Local Government, n.d.). For instance, speed limits on highways in cities range between 65 and 70 miles per hour; while the speed limit on country roads may range between 25 and 35. Educational services are one of the biggest expenditures for state governments; however, majority of the funding for education comes from the local budget (Financing State and Local Government, n.d.). Public welfare, health care, highways, police and fire protection, interest on debt, and utilities and liquor stores are a few big budget services that state and local governments provide (Financing State and Local Government, n.d.). State and local taxes are collected to pay for services such as garbage collection, traffic lights, and snow removal, to name a few (Financing State and Local Government, n.d.). Majority of the funding for these services comes from taxes; however, local and state governments do receive some income from licenses and fees and state-operated businesses (Financing State and Local Government, n.d.). Sales taxes, income taxes, and property taxes are major forms of taxation that allows state and local governments the opportunity to provide services to the citizens. One of the major sources of income for state governments, sales taxes, is placed on products, excluding food and clothing taxes (Financing State and Local Government, n.d.). Personal and corporate incomes are taxed by state governments. The amount of personal taxes imposed on an individual depends on the size of their income (Financing State and Local Government, n.d.). In other words, the more you make, the more the state will take out of your check for taxes. While state governments receive majority of their funding from sales tax and income taxes, local governments’ main source of income are property taxes. Property taxes are imposed on “land, buildings, and personal dwellings” (Financing State and Local Government, n.d., para. 8). Public Administrators are responsible for implementing policy enacted by the government by managing organizations and effectively implementing policy in order to “minimize any potential problems caused by the integration of policy” (Public Administrator, n.d., para. 1). It is important for administrators to be knowledge of the goods and services provided by federal, state, and local governments; therefore, the information administrators are taught should be in relation to those goods and/or services. In other words, public administrators should be up to date on policies and law, as well as, knowledgeable of current legal, economical, and cultural trends in order to better serve their intended audience. Note each response much be 3-4 sentences long

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